Running in KVM

CernVM images for KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) are intended to be used by experienced users, or by system administrators. For creating and controlling virtual machines with KVM we recommend using libvirt (in particular virsh command line utility) and virt-manager graphical tool.

Prerequisies

  • Make sure that your host supports kvm (the output of the command should not be empty)

    > egrep '(vmx|svm)' --color=always /proc/cpuinfo
  • Make sure that you have kvm, bridge-utils, libvirt, and virt-manager packages installed. The output of the following commands should not be empty.

    > lsmod | egrep 'kvm(_intel|_amd)'
    > brctl --version
    > virsh --version
    > virt-manager --version # (only for graphical interface)
  • Make sure that the permissions of /dev/kvm file are set to 0660 (or more open). The file should be owned by “root”, and the group ownership should be set to “kvm”

    > ls -al /dev/kvm
    crw-rw---- 1 root kvm 10, 232 Oct 19 14:49 /dev/kvm
  • Make sure that KVM network is properly set up for using NAT

    > virsh net-dumpxml default
    <network>
      <name>default</name>
      <uuid>a6ae5d2a-8ab5-45a9-94b2-62c29eb9e4f4< /uuid>
      <forward mode='nat'/>
      <bridge name='virbr0' stp='on' forwardDelay='0' />
      <ip address='192.168.122.1' netmask='255.255.255.0'>
        <dhcp>
          <range start='192.168.122.2' end='192.168.122.254' />
        </dhcp>
      </ip>
    </network>

Creating a Virtual Machine

Download CernVM ISO image from CernVM Downloads page. CernVM 3 requires an empty hard drive as a persistent CernVM-FS cache. Create a sparse hard disk image file with dd:

dd if=/dev/zero of=cernvm-hd.img bs=1 count=0 seek=20G

Create a virtual machine definition file for virsh (libvirt guest domain management interface), which should contain the following:

  • Virtual machine name
  • Memory size (in MB)
  • Number of virtual CPUs
  • Type of architecture (‘x86_64’) and boot device (‘cdrom’)
  • Hard drive and CD-ROM definition
  • Network interface definition
  • Graphical device definition

Example virtual machine definition file looks like this:

<domain type='kvm'>
        <name>CernVM-3</name>
        <memory>2097152</memory>
        <vcpu>1</vcpu>
        <os>
                <type arch='x86_64'>hvm</type>
                <boot dev='cdrom' />
        </os>
        <features>
                <acpi />
                <apic />
                <pae />
        </features>
        <devices>
                <disk type='file' device='cdrom'>
                        <source file='/data/test/ucernvm-prod.1.16-3.cernvm.x86_64.iso' />
                        <target dev="hdc" bus="ide" />
                        <readonly />
                </disk>
                <disk type='file' device='disk'>
                        <source file='/home/user/cernvm-hd.img' />
                        <target dev='vda' bus="virtio" />
                </disk>
                <interface type='network'>
                        <source network='default'/>
                        <model type='virtio'/>
                </interface>

                <graphics type='vnc' listen='0.0.0.0' port='6019'/>
         </devices>
</domain>

Virtual machine is created with the following command:

> virsh create vm-definition.xml

Virtual machines can be listed, started, stopped, and removed with:

> virsh list
 Id Name                 State
----------------------------------
 5  CernVM-3             running

> virsh shutdown CernVM-3
Domain CernVM-3 is being shutdown

> virsh start CernVM-3
Domain CernVM-3 started

> virsh destroy CernVM-3
Domain CernVM-3 destroyed

Virtual machine console can be opened using the virt-manager program.

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